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A must-have resource for all foundation engineering courses, PRINCIPLES OF FOUNDATION ENGINEERING, 9th Edition provides a careful balance between current research and practical field applications as it introduces civil engineering students to the core concepts and applications of foundation analysis design. Throughout this best-selling book, Dr. Das and Dr. Sivakugan emphasize how to develop the critical judgment civil engineers need to properly apply theories and analysis to the evaluation of soils and foundation design. This new edition includes three new chapters that highlight developing topics. This edition also provides a wealth of worked-out examples and multiple new figures that emphasize the skills most critical for students to master as successful civil engineers.
Geotechnical Engineering. Foundation Engineering. Site Exploration. Ground Improvement. Solution Methods. Numerical Modeling. Empiricism. Literature. References.
Part I: GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES AND SOIL EXPLORATION.
2. Geotechnical Properties of Soil.
Introduction. Grain-Size Distribution. Size Limits for Soils. Weight-Volume Relationships. Relative Density. Atterberg Limits. Liquidity Index. Activity. Soil Classification Systems. Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil. Steady-State Seepage. Effective Stress. Consolidation. Calculation of Primary Consolidation Settlement. Time Rate of Consolidation. Range of Coefficient of Consolidation. Degree of Consolidation Under Ramp Loading. Shear Strength. Unconfined Compression Test. Comments on Friction Angle, ϕ’. Correlations of Undrained Shear Strength, cu. Selection of Shear Strength Parameters. Sensitivity. Summary. Problems. References.
3. Natural Soil Deposits and Subsoil Exploration.
Introduction. Natural Soil Deposits. Soil Origin. Residual Soil. Gravity Transported Soil. Alluvial Deposits. Lacustrine Deposits. Glacial Deposits. Aeolian Soil Deposits. Organic Soil. Some Local Terms for Soil. Subsurface Exploration. Purpose of Subsurface Exploration. Subsurface Exploration Program. Exploratory Borings in the Field. Procedures for Sampling Soil. Split-Spoon Sampling. Sampling with a Scraper Bucket. Sampling with a Thin-Walled Tube. Sampling with a Piston Sampler. Observation of Water Tables. Vane Shear Test. Cone Penetration Test. Pressuremeter Test (PMT). Dilatometer Test. Iowa Borehole Shear Test. Kₒ Stepped-Blade Test. Coring of Rocks. Preparation of Boring Logs. Geophysical Exploration. Subsoil Exploration Report. Summary. Problems. References.
4. Instrumentation and Monitoring in Geotechnical Engineering.
Introduction. Need for Instrumentation. Geotechnical Measurements. Geotechnical Instruments. Planning an Instrumentation Program. Some Typical Instrumentation Projects. Summary. References
Part II: SOIL IMPROVEMENT.
5. Soil Improvement and Ground Modification.
Introduction. General Principles of Compaction. Empirical Relationships for Compaction. Field Compaction. Compaction Control for Clay Hydraulic Barriers. Vibroflotation. Blasting. Precompression. Sand Drains. Prefabricated Vertical Drains. Lime Stabilization. Cement Stabilization. Fly-Ash Stabilization. Stone Columns. Sand Compaction Piles. Dynamic Compaction. Jet Grouting. Deep Mixing. Summary. Problems. References.
Part III: FOUNDATION ANALYSIS.
6. Shallow Foundations: Ultimate Bearing Capacity.
Introduction. General Concept. Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory. Factor of Safety. Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table. The General Bearing Capacity Equation. Other Solutions for Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ, Shape, and Depth Factors. Case Studies on Ultimate Bearing Capacity. Effect of Soil Compressibility. Eccentrically Loaded Foundations. Ultimate Bearing Capacity under Eccentric Loading—One-Way Eccentricity. Bearing Capacity—Two-Way Eccentricity. A Simple Approach for Bearing Capacity with Two-Way Eccentricity. Bearing Capacity of a Continuous Foundation Subjected to Eccentrically Inclined Loading. Plane Strain Correction of Friction Angle. Summary. Problems. References.
7. Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations: Special Cases.
Introduction. Foundation Supported by a Soil with a Rigid Base at Shallow Depth. Foundations on Layered Clay. Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils: Stronger Soil Underlain by Weaker Soil. Bearing Capacity of Layered Soil: Weaker Soil Underlain by Stronger Soil. Continuous Foundation on Weak Clay with a Granular Trench. Closely Spaced Foundations—Effect on Ultimate Bearing Capacity. Bearing Capacity of Foundations on Top of a Slope. Bearing Capacity of Foundations on a Slope. Seismic Bearing Capacity and Settlement in Granular Soil. Foundations on Rock. Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Wedge-Shaped Foundation. Uplift Capacity of Foundations. Summary. Problems. References.
8. Vertical Stress Increase in Soil.
Introduction. Stress Due to a Concentrated Load. Stress Due to a Circularly Loaded Area. Stress Due to a Line Load. Stress Below a Vertical Strip Load (Finite Width and Infinite Length). Stress Below a Horizontal Strip Load of Finite Width and Infinite Length. Stress Below a Rectangular Area. Stress Isobars. Average Vertical Stress Increase Due to a Rectangularly Loaded Area. Average Vertical Stress Increase Below the Center of a Circularly Loaded Area. Stress Increase under an Embankment. Westergaard's Solution for Vertical Stress Due to a Point Load. Stress Distribution for Westergaard Material. Summary. Problems. References.
9. Settlement of Shallow Foundations.
Introduction. Elastic Settlement of Shallow Foundation on Saturated Clay. Elastic Settlement in Granular Soil. Settlement Based on the Theory of Elasticity. Improved Equation for Elastic Settlement. Settlement of Sandy Soil: Use of Strain Influence Factor. Settlement of Foundation on Sand Based on Standard Penetration Resistance. Settlement Considering Soil Stiffness Variation with Stress Level. Settlement Based on Pressuremeter Test (PMT). Settlement Estimation Using the L1-L2 Method. Effect of the Rise of Water Table on Elastic Settlement. Consolidation Settlement. Primary Consolidation Settlement Relationships. Three-Dimensional Effect on Primary Consolidation Settlement. Settlement Due to Secondary Consolidation. Field Load Test. Presumptive Bearing Capacity. Tolerable Settlement of Buildings. Summary. Problems. References.
10. Mat Foundations.
Introduction. Combined Footings. Common Types of Mat Foundations. Bearing Capacity of Mat Foundations. Differential Settlement of Mats. Field Settlement Observations for Mat Foundations. Compensated Foundation. Structural Design of Mat Foundations. Summary. Problems. References.
11. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD).
Introduction. Design Philosophy. Allowable Stress Design (ASD). Limit State Design (LSD) and Partial Safety Factors. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). Summary. Problems. References.
12. Pile Foundations.
Introduction. Types of Piles and Their Structural Characteristics. Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) Piles. Point Bearing and Friction Piles. Installation of Piles. Pile Driving. Load Transfer Mechanism. Equations for Estimating Pile Capacity. Meyerhof’s Method for Estimating Qp. Vesic's Method for Estimating Qp. Coyle and Castello’s Method for Estimating Qp in Sand. Correlations for Calculating Qp with SPT and CPT Results in Granular Soil. Frictionless Resistance (Qs) in Sand. Frictional (Skin) Resistance in Clay. Ultimate Capacity of Continuous Flight Auger Pile. Point Bearing Capacity of Piles Resting on Rock. Pile Load Tests. Elastic Settlement of Piles. Laterally Loaded Piles. Pile-Driving Formulas. Pile Capacity for Vibration-Driven Piles. Wave Equation Analysis. Negative Skin Friction. Group Piles. Group Efficiency. Ultimate Capacity of Group Piles in Saturated Clay. Elastic Settlement of Group Piles. Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles. Piles in Rock. Summary. Problems. References.
13. Drilled Shaft Foundations.
Introduction. Types of Drilled Shafts. Construction Procedures. Other Design Considerations. Load Transfer Mechanism. Estimation of Load-Bearing Capacity. Load-Bearing Capacity in Granular Soil. Load-Bearing Capacity in Granular Soil Based on Settlement. Load-Bearing Capacity in Clay. Load-Bearing Capacity Based on Settlement. Settlement of Drilled Shafts at Working Load. Lateral Load-Carrying Capacity—Characteristic Load and Moment Method. Drilled Shafts Extending into Rock. Summary. Problems. References.
14. Piled Rafts -- An Overview.
Introduction. Load-Settlement Plots of Unpiled and Piled Rafts under Different Design Conditions. Poulos-Davis-Randolph Simplified Design Method. Case Study: Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai. Summary. Problems. References.
15. Foundations on Difficult Soils.
Introduction. Collapsible Soil. Definition and Types of Collapsible Soils. Physical Parameters for Identification. Procedure for Calculating Collapse Settlement. Foundation Design in Soils Not Susceptible to Wetting. Foundation Design in Soils Susceptible to Wetting. Expansive Soils. General Nature of Expansive Soils. Unrestrained Swell Test. Swelling Pressure Test. Classification of Expansive Soil on the Basis of Index Tests. Foundation Considerations for Expansive Soils. Construction on Expansive Soils. Sanitary Landfills. General Nature of Sanitary Landfills. Settlement of Sanitary Landfills. Summary. Problems. References.
Part IV: LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE AND EARTH-RETAINING STRUCTURES.
16. Lateral Earth Pressure.
Introduction. Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest. Active Pressure. Rankine Active Earth Pressure. A Generalized Case for Rankine Active Pressure—Granular Backfill. Generalized Case for Rankine Seismic Active Earth Pressure—Granular Backfill. Rankine Active Pressure with Vertical Wall Backface and Inclined c’-ϕ’ Backfill. Coulomb's Active Earth Pressure. Lateral Earth Pressure Due to Surcharge. Active Earth Pressure for Earthquake Conditions—Granular Backfill. Active Earth Pressure for Earthquake Condition (Vertical Backface of Wall and c’-ϕ’ Backfill). Passive Pressure. Rankine Passive Earth Pressure. Rankine Passive Earth Pressure—Vertical Backface and Inclined Backfill. Coulomb's Passive Earth Pressure. Comments on the Failure Surface Assumption for Coulomb’s Pressure Calculations. Caquot and Kerisel Solution for Passive Earth Pressure (Granular Backfill). Solution for Passive Earth Pressure by Lower Bound Theorem of Plasticity (Granular Backfill). Passive Force on Walls with Earthquake Forces. Summary. Problems. References.
17. Retaining Walls.
Introduction. Gravity and Cantilever Walls. Proportioning Retaining Walls. Application of Lateral Earth Pressure Theories to Design. Stability of Retaining Walls. Check for Overturning. Check for Sliding along the Base. Check for Bearing Capacity Failure. Construction Joints and Drainage from Backfill. Comments on Design of Retaining Walls and a Case Study. Gravity Retaining-Wall Design for Earthquake Conditions. Mechanically Stabilized Retaining Walls. Soil Reinforcement. Considerations in Soil Reinforcement. General Design Considerations. Retaining Walls with Metallic Strip Reinforcement. Step-by-Step-Design Procedure Using Metallic Strip Reinforcement. Retaining Walls with Geotextile Reinforcement. Retaining Walls with Georigid Reinforcement—General. Design Procedure for Georigid-Reinforced Retaining Wall. Summary. Problems. References.
18. Sheet Pile Walls.
Introduction. Construction Methods. Cantilever Sheet-Pile Walls. Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Sandy Soils. Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating a Sandy Soil. Cantilever Sheet Piling Penetrating Clay. Special Cases for Cantilever Walls Penetrating Clay. Cantilever Sheet Piles Penetrating Sandy Soil—A Simplified Approach. Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls. Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Sandy Soil—A Simplified Approach. Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Sandy Soil. Design Charts for Free Earth Support Method (Penetration into Sandy Soil). Moment Reduction for Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls Penetrating into Sand. Computational Pressure Diagram Method for Penetration into Sandy Soil. Field Observations for Anchor Sheet-Pile Walls. Free Earth Support Method for Penetration of Clay. Anchors. Holding Capacity of Deadman Anchor. Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Sand. Holding Capacity of Anchor Plates in Clay (ϕ = 0 Condition). Ultimate Resistance of Tiebacks. Summary. Problems. References.
19. Braced Cuts.
Introduction. Braced Cut Analysis Based on General Wedge Theory. Pressure Envelope for Braced-Cut Design. Pressure Envelope for Cuts in Layered Soil. Design of Various Components of a Braced Cut. Case Studies of Braced Cuts. Bottom Heave of a Cut in Clay. Stability of the Bottom of a Cut in Sand. Lateral Yielding of Sheet Piles and Ground Settlement. Summary. Problems. References.
Answers to Problems.
Braja M. Das
California State University, Sacramento
Dr. Braja Das is Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at California State University, Sacramento. He received his M.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of Iowa and his Ph.D. in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin. He is the author of a number of geotechnical engineering texts and reference books and more than 250 technical papers in the area of geotechnical engineering. His primary areas of research include shallow foundations, earth anchors, and geosynthetics. Dr. Das is a Fellow and Life Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Life Member of the American Society for Engineering Education, and an Emeritus Member of the Chemical and Mechanical Stabilization Committee of the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council (Washington D.C.). He has received numerous awards for teaching excellence, including the AMOCO Foundation Award, the AT&T Award for Teaching Excellence from the American Society for Engineering Education, the Ralph Teetor Award from the Society of Automotive Engineers, and the Distinguished Achievement Award for Teaching Excellence from the University of Texas at El Paso.
James Cook University, Queensland, Australia
Dr. Sivakugan received his Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, with First Class Honors. He earned his MSCE and Ph.D. from Purdue University, West Lafayette, U.S.A. Dr. Sivakugan’s writings include eight books, 140 refereed international journal papers, 100 refereed international conference papers, and more than 100 consulting reports. As a registered professional engineer of Queensland and a chartered professional engineer, Dr. Sivakugan does substantial consulting work for the geotechnical and mining industry in Australia and overseas, including the World Bank. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Engineers Australia. He has supervised 14 Ph.D. students to completion at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, where he was the Head of Civil Engineering from 2003 to 2014. He is an Associate Editor for three international journals and serves in the editorial boards of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal and the Indian Geotechnical Journal.
"The book is very comprehensive and can be used as a reference book for geotechnical design courses. It gives a good introduction to geotechnical engineering (i.e., Soil Mechanics). It provides the main design aspects of various geotechnical elements. It also gives nice solved examples."
"The book is easy to follow. Students can teach themselves with the book, and the chapters and sections are well organized."