Welcome to Cengage
Would you like to be redirected to the site for United States?Stay on current Cengage site
Would you like to be redirected to the site for United States?Stay on current Cengage site
With a collection of over 400 sources, each accompanied by an introductory essay and review questions, this two-volume primary source reader emphasizes the intellectual history and values of the Western tradition. Sources are grouped around important themes in European history, including developments in intellectual and religious thought, warfare, revolution, and socio-economic change. The tenth edition includes more than 80 new selections and features completely revised chapters on the Middle Ages, the two world wars, totalitarianism, and Europe after World War II. To assure that this edition is as current as possible, the editors present essays -- updated just before publication -- on the European Union, ISIS, and Muslim immigration in Europe. There are also more sources on women, and the introductions and review questions are updated.
Part I: EARLY MODERN EUROPE.
1. The Rise of Modernity.
The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity -- Petrarch, The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and a Humanist Educational Program; Petrus Paulus Vergerius, The Importance of Liberal Studies. Break with Medieval Political Theory -- Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince. The Lutheran Reformation -- Martin Luther, Critique of Church Doctrines. European Expansion -- William Carr, The Dutch East India Company. The Atlantic Slave Trade -- John Newton, Thoughts Upon the African Slave Trade; Malachy Postlethwayt, Slavery Defended; John Wesley, Slavery Attacked. A Secular Defense of Absolutism -- Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution -- The English Declaration of Rights.
2. The Scientific Revolution.
Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System -- Galileo Condemned by the Inquisition. Advocacy Of Experimental Science -- Prophet of Modern Experimental Science; William Harvey, The Circulation of the Blood; Herman Boerhaave, A New Method of Chemistry. The Autonomy of the Mind -- Rene Descartes, Discourse On Method. The Mechanical Universe -- Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica. The Limitations of Science -- Blaise Pascal, Pensées.
3. The Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment Outlook -- Immanuel Kant, "What Is Enlightenment?". Enlightenment Political Thought -- John Locke, Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence; Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws; Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract; Thomas Paine, Rights of Man. Attack on Religion -- Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason; Baron d'Holbach, "Religion is a mere castle in the air". Epistemology -- John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Claude-Adrien Helvetius, Essays on the Mind and a Treatise on Man. Compendium of Knowledge -- Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia. Humanitarianism -- Caesare Beccaria, Condemning Torture; John Howard, State of Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia: "Men and Their Liberty Are Not Objects of Commerce. . . . ". Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society -- Voltaire, Candide; Montesquieu, The Persian Letters. Madam du Chatelet: A Woman of Brilliance -- Madame du Chatelet, An Appeal for Female Education. On the Progress of Humanity -- Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind.
Part II: MODERN EUROPE.
4. Era of the French Revolution.
Abuses of the Old Regime -- Arthur Young, Plight of the French Peasants; Emmanuel Sieyés, What Is the Third Estate?. The Role of the Philosophes -- Alexis de Tocqueville, Critique of the Old Regime. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity -- Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Expansion of Human Rights -- Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen; Society of the Friends of Blacks, address to the national assembly in favor of the abolition of the slave trade; Petition of the Jews of Paris, Alsace, and Lorraine to the National Assembly, January 28, 1790. The Jacobin Regime -- Republic of Virtue; General Ligniéres Turreau, Uprising in the Vendée; The District of Saint-Quentin, De-Christianization. Napoleon: Destroyer and Preserver of the Revolution -- Napoleon Bonaparte, Leader, General, Tyrant, Reformer; Madame de Staël, Critic of Napoleon.
5. The Industrial Revolution.
Early Industrialization -- Edward Baines, Britain's Industrial Advantages and the Factory System; Adam Smith, The Division Of Labor. The New Science of Political Economy -- Adam Smith, Against Government Intervention in the Economy; Thomas R. Mathus, On the Principle of Population. The Dark Side of Industrialization -- Sadler Commission, Report on Child Labor; James Phillips Kay, Moral and Physical Dissipation; Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England. Factory Discipline -- Factory Rules. The Capitalist Ethic -- Samuel Smiles, Self-Help and Thrift. Reformers -- Robert Owen, Ameliorating the Plight of the Poor.
6. Romanticism, Reaction, Revolution.
Romanticism -- Williams Wordsworth, Tables Turned; William Blake, Milton. Conservatism -- Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France; Klemens von Metternich, The Odious Ideas of the Philosophes; Joseph de Maistre, Errors of the Enlightenment. Liberalism -- Benjamin Constant, On the Limits of Popular Sovereignty; John Stuart Mill, On Liberty. Rise of Modern Nationalism -- Ernst Moritz Arndt, The War of Liberation; Giuseppe Mazzini, Young Italy. Repression -- Karlsbad Decrees. 1848: The Year of Revolutions -- Flora Tristan, "Workers, Your Condition . . . Is Miserable and Distressing"; Alexis de Tocqueville, The June Days; Carl Schurz, Revolution Spreads to the German States.
7. Thought and Culture in an Age of Science and Industry.
Realism in Literature -- Charles Dickens, Hard Times; Henrik Ibsen, A Doll's House. Theory of Evolution -- Charles Darwin, Natural Selection. The Socialist Revolution -- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto. The Evolution of Liberalism -- L.T. Hobhouse, Justification for State Intervention; Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State.
8. Politics and Society, 1845-1914.
The Irish Potato Famine -- Poulett Scrope, Evictions; Nicholas Cummins, The Famine in Skibbereen. The Lower Classes -- William Booth, In Darkest England and the Way Out; Henry Mayhew, Prostitution In Victorian London; M. I. Pokrovskaya, Working Conditions for Women in Russian Factories. Feminism and Antifeminism -- John Stuart Mill, The Subjection Of Women; Emmeline Pankhurst, "Why We Are Militant"; The Goncourt Brothers, On Female Inferiority; Almroth E. Wright, The Unexpected Case Against Women Suffrage. German Racial Nationalism -- Houston Stewart Chamberlain, The Importance of Race; Pan-German League, "There Are Dominant Races and Subordinate Races." Anti-Semitism: Regression to the Irrational -- Theodor Fritsch, Rules to Follow Regarding Jews; The Dreyfus Affair: The Henry Memorial; The Kishinev Pogrom, 1903; Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State.
9. European Imperialism.
The Spirit of British Imperialism -- Joseph Chamberlain, The British Empire: Colonial Commerce and "The White Man's Burden"; Karl Pearson, Social Darwinism: Imperialism Justified By Nature. European Rule in Africa -- Cecil Rhodes and Lo Bengula, "I Had Signed Away the Mineral Rights of My Whole Country"; Edmund Morel, The Black Man's Burden; Richard Meinertzhagen, An Embattled Colonial Officer in East Africa; German Brutality in Southwest Africa: Exterminating the Herero. Chinese Resentment of Western Imperialism -- The Boxer Rebellion. British Rule in India -- Lord Lytton, Speech to Calcutta Legislature, 1878; Jawaharlal Nehru, India's Resentment of the British. Imperialism Debated -- The Edinburgh Review, "We . . . Can Restore Order Where There Is Chaos, and Fertility Where There Is Sterility"; John Atkinson Hobson, An Early Critique of Imperialism.
10. Modern Consciousness.
The Overman and the Will to Power -- Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will To Power and The Antichrist. The Unconscious -- Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents. The Political Potential of the Irrational -- Gustave Le Bon, Mass Psychology; Vilfredo Pareto, Politics and the Nonrational. Human Irrationality in the Modernish Novel -- Joseph Conrad, Heart Of Darkness.
Part III: WESTERN CIVILIZATION IN CRISIS.
11. World War I.
Militarism -- Heinrich von Treitschke, The Greatness of War; Friedrich von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War; Henri Massis and Alfred de Tarde, The Young People of Today. Pan Serbism: Nationalism and Terrorism -- The Black Hand; Baron von Giesl, Austrian Response to the Assassination. War as Celebration: The Mood in European Capitals -- Roland Dorgeles, Paris: "That Fabulous Day"; Stefan Zweig, Vienna: "The Rushing Feeling of Fraternity"; Philipp Schneidemann, Berlin: "The Hour We Yearned For"; Bertrand Russell, London "Average Men and Women were Delighted at the Prospect of War". The Horror of Trench Warfare -- British and German Combatants, the Battle of Somme; Siegfried Sassoon, "Base Details"; Wilfred Owen, "Disabled". Women at War -- Naomi Loughnan, Genteel Women in the Factories; Magda Trott, Opposition to Female Employment; Russian Women in Combat. The Ethnic Cleansing of Turkey's Armenian Minority -- Takhoui Levonian and Yevnig Adrouni, The Survivors Remember. The Paris Peace Conference -- Woodrow Wilson, The Idealistic View; Georges Clemenceau, French Demands for Security and Revenge. The Bolshevik Revolution -- V. I. Lenin, What Is to Be Done?; V. I. Lenin, The Call to Power. The War and European Consciousness -- D. H. Lawrence, Disillusionment; Ernst von Salomon, Brutalization of the Individual; Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz, The Persistent War Spirit; Erich Maria Remarque, The Lost Generation.
12. Era of Totalitarianism.
Socialist Condemnation of the Bolsheviks -- Proclamation of the Kronstadt Rebels; Karl Kautsky, "Socialism Has Already Suffered a Defeat". Modernize or Perish -- Joseph Stalin, The Hard Line. Forced Collectivization -- Lev Kopelev, Terror in the Countryside; Miron Dolot, Execution By Hunger. Shaping a New Society and a "New Man" -- A.O. Avdienko, The Cult of Stalin; Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Literature as Propaganda. Stalin's Terror -- Lev Razgon, True Stories; Anatoly Zhigulin, A "Cannabalistic Sport." The Rise of Italian Fascism -- Benito Mussolini, Fascist Doctrines. The Fledgling Weimar Republic -- Friedrich Junger, Antidemocratic Thoughts in the Weimar Republic; Konrad Heiden, The Ruinous Inflation, 1923; Heinrich Hauser, "With Germany's Unemployed." The Rise of Nazism -- Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf; Kurt G. W. Ludecke, The Demagogic Orator. The Leader-State -- Ernst Rudolf Huber, "The Authority of the Führer Is . . . All-Inclusive and Unlimited." The Nazification of Culture and Society -- Jakob Graf, Heredity and Racial Biology for Students; Louis P. Lochner, Book Burning; Stephen H. Roberts, The Nuremberg Rally, 1936. Persecution of the Jews -- The Nuremberg Laws: Depriving Jews of Civil Liberties; Ernst Heimer, Jew-Hatred in School Books; David Buffum, Night of the Broken Glass (Kristallnacht). The Anguish of the Intellectuals -- Johan Huizinga, In the Shadow of Tomorrow; Nicolas Berdyaev, Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity.
13. World War II.
Prescient Observers of Nazi Germany -- Horace Rumbold, "Pacifism Is the Deadliest of Sins"; George S. Messersmith, "The Nazis Were After . . . Unlimited Territorial Expansion." Remilitarization of the Rhineland -- William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary. The Anschluss, March 1938 -- Stefan Zweig, The World Of Yesterday. The Munich Agreement -- Neville Chamberlain, In Defense of Appeasement; Winston Churchill, "A Disaster of the First Magnitude". World War II Begins -- Adolf, Hitler, "Poland Will Be Depopulated and Settled With Germans." The Fall of France -- Heinz Guderian, "French Leadership . . . Could Not Grasp the Significance of the Tank in Mobile Warfare." The Battle of Britain -- Winston Churchill, "Blood Toil, Tears, and Sweat." Nazi Ideology and the German Military: The Indoctrination of the German Solider -- Nazi Tracts, Generals' Memorandums, Letters Home; Heinrich Himmler, The Racial Empire. Stalingrad: A Turning Point -- Anton Kuzmich Dragan, A Soviet Veteran Recalls; Joachim Wieder, Memories and Reassessments. The Holocaust -- Herman Graebe, Slaughter of Jews in Ukraine; Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz; Survivors, Concentration Camp Life and Death; Joseph Freeman, The Death March. Resistance in Warsaw -- Marek Edelman, The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943; Taeusz Bor-Komorowski, The Warsaw Uprising, 1944. D-Day, June 6, 1944 -- Historical Division, U.S. War Department, Omaha Beachhead. The End of the Third Reich -- Nerin E. Gun, The Liberation of Dachau; Margaret Freyer, The Fire-Bombing of Dresden; Marie Neumann, "We're in the Hands of a Mob, Not Soldiers, and They're All Drunk Out of Their Minds; Adolf Hitler, Political Testament. The Defeat of Japan -- Veterans, The Battle of Iwo Jima.
14. Europe: A New Era.
The Aftermath in Germany -- Theodore H. White, "Germany in Ruins"; A German Expellee from Czechoslovakia, "Germans Were Driven Out of Their Homeland Like Dogs"; The Nuremberg Trials of Nazi War Criminals; Justice Robert H. Jackson, Closing Arguments for Convicting Nazi War Criminals. The Cold War -- George F. Kennan, The Policy of Containment. Communist Oppression -- Fens Jicai, China's Cultural Revolution: Communist Fanaticism; Teeda Butt Mam, Genocide in Cambodia: "It Takes a River of Ink to Write Our Stories." Resistance and Dissidence in Communist World -- Milovan Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System; Andor Heller, The Hungarian Revolution, 1956. The New Germany: Confronting the Past -- Hannah Vogt, The Burden of Guilt; Richard von Weizsacker, "We Seek Reconciliation." The Twilight of Imperialism -- Mahatma Gandhi on the Partition of India. The Speech by Premier Patrice Lumumba on Independence Day for the Congo; Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Vietnam, September 2, 1945.
Part IV: THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD.
15. The West in an Age of Globalism.
The Collapse of Communism -- Vaclav Havel, The Failure of Communism. Transplanting Western Democracy in Non-Western Lands -- Fareed Zakaria, "Democracy Has Its Dark Sides." The Editors, The European Union: An Uncertain Future. The Editors, ISIS: Ideology, Appeal, Terrorism. The Editors, Islam in Europe: Failure of Assimilation. Female Oppression -- U.N. Secretary-General, Ending Violence Against Women: "The Systematic Domination of Women by Men. " The Taliban's War on Women -- A Persecuted Afghan Woman: "You come from a family of infidels." U.S. Department of State: Human Trafficking. Resurgence of Anti-Semitism -- U.S. State Department, Contemporary Global Anti-Semitism. In Defense of European Values -- Jacques Ellul, The Betrayal of the West.
Baruch College, City University of New York
Marvin Perry, now retired, taught history at Baruch College, City University of New York. He has published several successful Cengage Learning texts, including WESTERN CIVILIZATION: IDEAS, POLITICS, AND SOCIETY (senior author and general editor); WESTERN CIVILIZATION: A BRIEF HISTORY; the leading Western Civilization reader, SOURCES OF THE WESTERN TRADITION; AN INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE; SOURCES OF EUROPEAN HISTORY SINCE 1900 (senior editor); HUMANITIES IN THE WESTERN TRADITION (senior author and general editor); and WORLD WAR II IN EUROPE: A CONCISE HISTORY. His scholarly work includes ARNOLD TOYNBEE AND THE WESTERN TRADITION (1996); ANTISEMITISM: MYTH AND HATE FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE PRESENT (coauthor, 2002); ANTISEMITIC MYTHS: A HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY ANTHOLOGY (coeditor, 2008); and THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM: AN ANTHOLOGY (coeditor, 2008). Dr. Perry's scholarly work focuses on the history of ideas.