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**MindTap** is a personalised teaching and learning experience with relevant assignments that guide students to analyse, apply, and improve thinking, allowing you to measure skills and outcomes with ease.

Written in a concise, easy-to understand manner, INTRODUCTION TO GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING, 2e, presents intensive research and observation in the field and lab that have improved the science of foundation design. Now providing both U.S. and SI units, this non-calculus-based text is designed for courses in civil engineering technology programs where soil mechanics and foundation engineering are combined into one course. It is also a useful reference tool for civil engineering practitioners.

1. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING.

Geotechnical Engineering. Geotechnical Engineering Applications. Soil Parameters. References.

2. GRAIN-SIZE ANALYSIS.

Introduction. Soil-Particle Size. General Soil Deposits. Some Local Terms for Soils. Grain-Size Analysis. Grain-Size Distribution Curve. Summary. Problems. References.

3. WEIGHT-VOLUME RELATIONSHIPS.

Introduction. Volume Relationships. Weight Relationships. Specific Gravity of Soil Solids. Relationships Among Unit Weight, Void Ratio, Moisture Content, and Specific Gravity. Relationships Among Unit Weight, Porosity, and Moisture Content. Relative Density. Summary. Problems. References.

4. PLASTICITY AND SOIL CLASSIFICATION.

Introduction. Consistency of Soils-Atterberg Limits. Liquid Limit (LL). Plastic Limit (PL). Shrinkage Limit (SL). Engineering Classification of Soil. AASHTO Soil Classification System. Unified Soil Classification System. Summary. Problems. References.

5. SOIL COMPACTION.

Introduction. Compaction General Principles. Standard Proctor Test. Factors Affecting Compaction. Modified Proctor Test. Effect of Compaction on Cohesive Soil Properties. Field Compaction. Specifications for Field Compaction. Determination of Field Unit Weight of Compaction. Summary. Problems. References.

6. PERMEABILTY AND CAPILLARITY.

Introduction. Darcy's Law. Hydraulic Conductivity. Laboratory Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity. Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity-Granular Soil. Relationships for Hydraulic Conductivity-Cohesive Soils. Permeability Test in the Field by Pumping from Wells. Capillary Rise in Soils. Summary. Problems. References.

7. STRESSES IN A SOIL MASS.

Introduction. Stresses in Saturated Soil without Seepage. Stresses in Saturated Soil with Upward Seepage. Stress Caused by a Point Load. Vertical Stress Below the Center of a Uniformly Loaded Circular Area. Vertical Stress Caused by a Rectangularly Loaded Area. Summary. Problems. References.

8. CONSOLIDATION.

Introduction. Fundamentals of Consolidation. One-dimensional Laboratory Consolidation Test. Void Ratio-Pressure Plots. Normally Consolidated and Overconsolidated Clays. Effect of Disturbance on Void Ratio-Pressure Relationship. Calculation of Settlement from One-dimensional Primary Consolidation. Compression Index (Cc) and Swell Index (Cs). Settlement from Secondary Consolidation. Time Rate of Consolidation. Coefficient of Consolidation. Summary. Problems. References.

9. SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOILS.

Introduction. Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria. Direct Shear Test. Triaxial Shear Test. Consolidated-Drained Test. Consolidated-Undrained Test. Unconsolidated-Undrained Test. Unconfined Compression Test on Saturated Clay. Summary. Problems. References.

10. SUBRSURFACE EXPLORATION.

Introduction. Subsurface Exploration Program. Exploratory Borings in the Field. Procedures for Sampling of Soil. Observation of Water Levels. Vane Shear Test. Cone Penetration Test. Coring of Rocks. Preparation of Boring Logs. Subsoil Exploration Report. Summary. Problems. References.

11. LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE: AT-REST, RANKINE, AND COULOMB.

Introduction. At-Rest, Active, and Passive Pressures. Earth Pressure At-Rest. Earth Pressure At-Rest for Partially Submerged Soil. Rankine Active Earth Pressure. Rankine Active Pressure-Partially Submerged Cohesionless Soil (c=0) with Backfill Supporting a Surcharge. Rankine Active Pressure with Inclined Granular (c=0) Backfill. Rankine Passive Earth Pressure. Coulomb's Active Pressure. Coulomb's Passive Pressure. Summary. Problems. References.

12. SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS-BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT.

Introduction. General Concepts. Ultimate Bearing Capacity Theory. Modification of Bearing Capacity Equations for Water Table. The Factor of Safety. Eccentrically Loaded Foundations. Types of Foundation Settlement. Elastic Settlement. Range of Material Parameters for Computing Elastic Settlement. Field Load Test. Elastic Settlement Based on Standard Penetration Resistance in Sand. Primary Consolidation Settlement. Common Types of Mat Foundations. Bearing Capacity of Mat Foundations. Compensated Foundations. Summary. Problems. References.

13. DEEP FOUNDATIONS.

Introduction, Pile Foundations-General. Types of Piles and Their Structural Characteristics. Estimating Pile Length. Installation of Piles. Ultimate Load-Carrying Capacity of Piles in Sand. Ultimate Load-Carrying Capacity of Piles in Clay. Pile-Driving Formulas. Pile Load Tests. Group Piles-Efficiency. Consolidation Settlement of Group Piles. Elastic Settlement of Group Piles. Drilled Shafts-General. Types of Drilled Shafts. Construction Procedures. Estimation of Load-Bearing Capacity. Allowable Load-Bearing Capacity Based on Settlement. Summary. Problems. References.

14. RETAINING WALLS.

Introduction. Proportioning Retaining Walls. Application of Lateral Earth Pressure Theories to Design. Stability of Retaining Walls. Check for Overturning. Check for Sliding Along the Base. Check for Bearing Capacity Failure. Drainage from the Backfill of the Retaining Wall. Provision of Joints in Retaining-Wall Construction. Summary. Problems. References.

15. SLOPE STABILITY.

Introduction. Factor of Safety. Culmann's Method for Stability Analysis. Factor of Safety Along a Plane. Analysis of Slopes with Circular Failure Surfaces-General. Mass Procedures-Slopes in Homogenous Clay Soil with Ф=0. Mass Procedures-Slopes in Homogenous c'-Ф' Soil. Ordinary Methods of Slices. Summary. Problems. References.

ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS.

INDEX.

- A liberal illustration program helps readers better understand the material.

- Solid coverage of soil mechanics fundamentals is provided to help readers better understand foundation design.
- U.S. and SI units are now combined, making the book useful for engineers working both in and outside the United States.
- Approximately 78 example problems and 150 homework problems help readers master concepts and improve their problem-solving skills.
- Chapter-ending summaries help you review key points.
- References at the end of every chapter allow readers to further explore topics of interest.

**Braja M. Das**

California State University, Sacramento

Dr. Braja Das is Dean Emeritus of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at California State University, Sacramento. He received his M.S. in Civil Engineering from the University of Iowa and his Ph.D. in Geotechnical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin. He is the author of a number of geotechnical engineering texts and reference books and more than 250 technical papers in the area of geotechnical engineering. His primary areas of research include shallow foundations, earth anchors, and geosynthetics. Dr. Das is a Fellow and Life Member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Life Member of the American Society for Engineering Education, and an Emeritus Member of the Chemical and Mechanical Stabilization Committee of the Transportation Research Board of the National Research Council (Washington D.C.). He has received numerous awards for teaching excellence, including the AMOCO Foundation Award, the AT&T Award for Teaching Excellence from the American Society for Engineering Education, the Ralph Teetor Award from the Society of Automotive Engineers, and the Distinguished Achievement Award for Teaching Excellence from the University of Texas at El Paso.

**Nagaratnam Sivakugan**

James Cook University, Queensland, Australia

Dr. Sivakugan received his Bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, with First Class Honors. He earned his MSCE and Ph.D. from Purdue University, West Lafayette, U.S.A. Dr. Sivakugan’s writings include eight books, 140 refereed international journal papers, 100 refereed international conference papers, and more than 100 consulting reports. As a registered professional engineer of Queensland and a chartered professional engineer, Dr. Sivakugan does substantial consulting work for the geotechnical and mining industry in Australia and overseas, including the World Bank. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Engineers Australia. He has supervised 14 Ph.D. students to completion at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, where he was the Head of Civil Engineering from 2003 to 2014. He is an Associate Editor for three international journals and serves in the editorial boards of the Canadian Geotechnical Journal and the Indian Geotechnical Journal.

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