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Elementary Hydraulics is written for the undergraduate level and contains material to appeal to a diversified class of students. The book, divided into three parts, blends fluid mechanics, hydraulic science, and hydraulics engineering. The first part of the text draws upon fluid mechanics and summarizes the concepts deemed essential to the teaching of hydraulics. The second part builds on the first section while discussing the science of hydraulics. The third section looks at the engineering practice of hydraulics and illustrates practical applications of the material covered in the text. In addition to these applications, the text contains a number of numerical problems and a reading aid at the end of each chapter to enhance student learning.

1: Introduction.

Definition of Hydraulics. Distinction Among Hydraulics, Hydrology, and Fluid Mechanics. Classification of Hydraulics. Subject Matter of Hydraulics. Environmental and Water Resources Problems Involving Hydraulic Applications. Classification of Hydraulic Problems. Scientific Approach to Investigating Hydraulic Problems. Simplification of Scientific Approach. Hydraulic Modeling. Scientific Foundations for the Study of Hydraulics. Dimensions. Systems of Units. Scope and Organization of the Book. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

PART 1: FLUID MECHANIC PRELIMINARIES.

2: Fundamental Properties of Fluids and Flow Types.

Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight. Viscosity. Compressibility of Fluids. Thermal Expansion. Surface Tension. Vapor Pressure. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

3: Forces, Motion, and Energy.

Hydraulic Parameters. Forces. Motions. Relation between Forces and Motions. Energy. Relation between Force and Energy. Mass, Momentum and Energy Fluxes. Significance of Relative Magnitudes of Forces and Energy. Regimes of Flow. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

4: Hydrostatics.

Pressure at a Point. Pressure Field. Variation of Pressure in a Fluid at Rest. Standard Atmosphere. Hydrostatic Force on Immersed Surfaces. Graphical Representation of Hydrostatic Forces. Buoyancy and Stability. Measurement of Pressure. Manometer. Reading Aid. Problems. References. PART 2: HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES.

5: Governing Equations.

Mass Conservation: The Continuity Equation. Energy Conservation: The Bernoulli Equation. Momentum Conservation: The Momentum Equation. Choice between Momentum and Energy Equations. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

6: Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similarity.

Fundamental Dimensions, Systems of Units and Hydraulic Variables. Empirical Formulation of General Flow Equation. Methods of Dimensional Analysis. Hydraulic Scale Models. Types of Similarity. Dominating Forces. Distorted Models. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

7: Flow Resistance and Velocity Distributions.

Factors Affecting Flow Resistance. Steady Uniform Flow. Resistance Equations for Steady Uniform Flow. Velocity Distributions in Steady, Uniform Flow. Power Law Velocity Distributions. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

8: Closed Conduit Flow.

General Energy Considerations. Resistance Applications and Friction Losses in Pipes. 84 Empirical Resistance Equations. Minor Losses in Pipes. Water Distribution Systems. Transient Flow in Closed Conduits. Surge tanks. Reading Aid. Problems.

References.

9: Pumps.

Introduction. Overall Efficiency of Hydraulic Machines. Classification of Pumps. Positive (Displacement) Pumps. Dynamic Pressure Pumps. Pumps Operating in Combination. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

10: Channel Geometry.

Channel Flow. Types of Open Channels. Channel Geometry. Geometric Elements. Cross Section Asymmetry. Compound Sections. Channel Slope. River Hydraulic Geometry. Hydraulic Geometry of Basins. Measurement of Geometric Elements of Natural Rivers. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

11: Resistance in Open Channels.

Steady, Uniform Flow in Open Channels. Calculation of Normal depth. Other Applications. Channel Efficiency. Resistance in Steady, Nonuniform Flow. Concluding Remarks. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

12: Energy Principle in Open Channels.

Total Energy and Specific Energy. Specific Energy Diagram. Mathematical Solution of the Energy Equation. Critical Flow Conditions. Discharge-Depth Relation for Constant Specific Energy. Application of Energy Principle. Dimensionless Representation of Specific Energy Diagram. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

13: Momentum Principle in Open Channels.

Momentum Function. Hydraulic Jump (Standing Wave). Conjugate or Sequent Depths. Energy Loss in Hydraulic Jump. Geometry of Hydraulic Jumps. Classification of Hydraulic Jumps. Underflow (Sluice) Gates. Forced Jumps. Hydraulic Jumps in Expanding Sections. Jumps in Rectangular Channels with Sloping Beds. Oblique Jumps. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

14: Gradually Varied Flow.

Gradually Varied Flow Equation. Water surface Profiles. Outlining Water Surface Profiles. Jump Location and Water Surface Profiles Between Steep and Mild Reaches. Control Sections. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

PART 3: HYDRAULIC APPLICATIONS AND DESIGN.

15: Computation of Water Surface Profiles.

Numerical Integration Method. Direct Step Method. Standard Step Method. HEC-RAS. Geographical Information Systems Applications. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

16: Design of Hydraulic Controls and Structures.

Basic Principles. Design of Hydraulic Drainage and Control Structures. Reading Aid. Problems. References.

Appendix A: Conversion Factors.

Appendix B: Table for Determining F (U, N) for Positive Slopes.

- Students require no previous experience in hydraulics as this book was written at the elementary level.
- "Reading Aids" are located at the end of each chapter to aid student learning.
- The text is divided into 3 parts: Fluid Mechanics (an introduction), Hydraulic Science (core of text), and Hydraulic Engineering (applications and design).
- Large selection of homework problems.

**James F. Cruise**

University of Alabama-Huntsville

**Vijay P. Singh**

Louisiana State University

**Mohsen M. Sherif**

United Arab Emirates University

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