Sandra J. Parkes is the Associate Dean of Continuing Education at the University of Utah, where she also teaches in the Public Administration Program. Her primary teaching and research interests are in the areas of organizational behavior and development, organizational leadership and change, motivation, human resource management, transfer of training, arts administration, and the practice of management. Her most recent publication was a chapter in the HANDBOOK OF PUBLIC MANAGEMENT PRACTICE AND REFORM. She has been a management consultant and trainer in business, nonprofit organizations, and government and works extensively with the municipal clerk and fire service professions. Her doctorate is from Arizona State University, and her Master's degree from the University of Wyoming.