James P. Pfiffner is a University Professor in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University. He has also taught at the University of California, Riverside and California State University, Fullerton. He has written or edited ten books on the presidency, including THE STRATEGIC PRESIDENCY: HITTING THE GROUND RUNNING, 2nd Edition ( 1996) and THE CHARACTER FACTOR: HOW WE JUDGE AMERICA'S PRESIDENTS (2004). He has also published more than 80 articles and book chapters on the presidency, American government, and public management. As an elected member of the National Academy of Public Administration, he has been a panel member or on project staffs of the National Commission on the Public Service (the Volcker Commission), the Center for Strategic and International Studies, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Center for the Study of the Presidency.