Howard Abadinsky is professor of criminal justice at St. John's University. A graduate of Queens College of the City University of New York, he has an MSW from Fordham University and a PhD in sociology from New York University. Prior to entering academia, he was a New York State Parole Officer and Senior Parole Officer and a Cook County, Illinois, Deputy Sheriff/Inspector. He was a consultant to the President's Commission on Organized Crime and founder of the International Association for the Study of Organized Crime. Dr. Abadinsky is the author of several books, including THE CRIMINAL ELITE: ORGANIZED AND PROFESSIONAL CRIME; PROBATION AND PAROLE: THEORY AND PRACTICE; and LAW, COURTS, AND JUSTICE IN AMERICA.